Carbon fiber (CF) is a new type of fiber material with high strength and high modulus fiber with carbon content above 95%. It is a microcrystalline graphite material obtained by stacking organic fibers such as flake graphite crystallites along the axial direction of the fiber and carbonizing and graphitizing. Carbon fiber is "extra-soft inside", its quality is lighter than that of metal aluminum, but its strength is higher than that of steel, and it has corrosion-resistant and high-modulus properties, and is an important material in defense military and civilian use. It not only has the inherent characteristics of carbon materials, but also the softness and processability of textile fibers. It is a new generation of reinforcing fibers.
Carbon fiber has many excellent properties: carbon fiber has high axial strength and modulus, low density, high specific performance, high temperature resistance in non-oxidizing environment, good fatigue resistance. Its specific heat and conductivity between non-metal and the metals, the coefficient of thermal expansion is small and anisotropic, the corrosion resistance is good, and the X-ray permeability is great. Besides, it has the characters of good electrical and thermal conductivity, good electromagnetic shielding and so on.
In addition to aerospace, defense and military, and carbon fiber, new carbon fiber markets such as automotive components, wind turbine blades, building reinforcements, reinforced plastics, and drilling platforms are also being used. It is also used in pressure vessels, medical devices, marine development, and new energy. Other applications for carbon fiber include the production of composites for machine components, household appliances, and semiconductor-related equipment that can be used to enhance, prevent, and shield electromagnetic waves. In addition, the use of carbon fiber on X-ray instruments can reduce exposure to X-rays.
The world's carbon fiber production has reached more than 40,000 tons per year, mainly in Japan, the United States, Germany and South Korea and so on, and a few countries have mastered the core technology of carbon fiber production, and have large-scale production.
At present, the global carbon fiber core technology is firmly in the hands of a few developed countries. On the one hand, developed countries led by the United States and Japan have always maintained a strict technical blockade on China's carbon fiber industry; on the other hand, foreign carbon fiber industry leaders have begun to enter the Chinese market, and the pressure on China's domestic carbon fiber companies has increased. Although China has increased its guidance and support for the carbon fiber industry, under the larger technological gap, the breakthrough path of domestic carbon fiber is still bumpy.
However, in February 2018, the first 100-ton T1000 carbon fiber production line independently developed by China was put into operation in the Lianyungang Development Zone of Jiangsu Province and operated smoothly, marking China's high-performance carbon fiber to a new level.